Animals and birds have played an important role in the lives of humans, not only because they are not only practically useful but also as sources of inspiration in different cultural activities such as belief systems, art, and literature.

Every civilization in the world sees animals, birds, and marine life in its special way. In Indian culture, animals and birds share a partnership in every phase of our lives. They are presented in paintings and sculptures as companions of deities, symbols of strength and beauty, or simply as decorations. The Romans saw animals as brutish creatures that had to be killed or controlled for human survival. The Greeks saw them as symbols of the power that resided in their separate worlds. But ancient Indians saw them as friendly, loyal, and attractive. Animals have not undergone any major changes in their shape or behavior, but the perception of humans has changed from age to age. Depictions of animals, birds, and sea creatures in sculptures, paintings, and arts such as dance and fabric printing, and architecture are expressions of human imagination and are often used as symbols of power, grace, beauty, majesty, opulence, and religious. and intelligence. Owning an elephant is considered a symbol of wealth and affluence. White elephants are rare and considered lucky in India. Various schools of paintings, including the sculptures at Ajanta, Ellora, and the folk-style Warli paintings, feature elephants. Most importantly, our ancestors proved that animals, birds, and sea creatures were an integral part of the human universe as equal partners who shared the earth. Each animal, stylized according to the deity’s form, is worshiped individually through dance, music, paintings, and sculptures. Animals or birds are considered guardians of temples and human society.


The peacock is the national bird of India and holds an important place in mythology. We have seen flamboyant peacocks appearing frequently in many forms of art, including literature, jewelry, handicrafts, ancient and contemporary paintings, murals, rock carvings, and decorative motifs on buildings. The peacock is important in Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity and is also celebrated as a secular symbol of beauty, love, romance, and life. Saraswati, the beautiful goddess of knowledge and arts, is accompanied by swans or peacocks. According to ancient myths, people believed that peacock flesh does not rot after death and this signifies eternal life. In Madhubani paintings, the peacock symbolizes heavenly love, knowledge, romance, and prosperity. One of the richest examples of Indian art and culture..

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Elephants are highly visible throughout India for their religious and cultural symbolism and as a working animal and tourist attraction. Hindus worship Ganesha who is depicted with an elephant head and represents success and education. Elephants are symbols of intellectual power and strong mental strength in Hinduism and Indian culture. It is a sacred animal and is considered the elephant representation or living avatar of Lord Ganesha. The elephant is believed to bring good luck and prosperity and is worshiped as Ganesha. It was considered sacred with a connection to divinity and considered part of the extended family in ancient times. Elephants are kept in temples in South India as part of temple rituals. Hindus weave the majestic elephant seamlessly into their daily lives through culture, art, and beauty – from paintings on caves, and miniatures to everyday clothes and textiles, coins, and many other forms.

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The cow is worshiped in Hinduism, representing the life-giving mother goddess. The cow is considered a sacred animal and symbolizes wealth, power, and motherly love. It is believed to be the earthly representative of the divine and nurturing Mother Goddess who represents fertility and abundance. Lord Krishna’s association with cows is based on their sanctity. Their milk is believed to have a purifying effect on the human body. Shiva, the lord of the Himalayas, rides a mighty Nandi or bull, symbolizing power and strength. In many human cultures, cows symbolize fertility, generosity, motherhood, and the source of life, and are associated with serenity. Cows and their male counterparts are recurring presences in mythology and ancient religions. The cow is an animal, rather than that it is also a powerful symbol, myth, and metaphor.


Like the cow, the monkey is very common in India and the monkey is depicted in the Hindu god Hanuman, the god of power. Devout Hindus leave food for the monkeys at the temples they frequent. Monkeys are widely seen in Hindu religious artifacts. Monkeys have a significant reputation in Hindu mythology, as people associate them with Hanuman, the monkey god. Because of this, monkeys are found in high density around the temples. In religious places, people consider it sacred to feed monkeys with fruits, especially bananas.


The tiger and lion are the carriers of the Hindu goddess Durga, the powerful and protective mother. By association, the tiger is seen as embodying power and strength. The imagery associated with the tiger is widespread throughout Indian history, from ancient cave paintings to the contemporary revival of folk art. Lion or tiger, Durga’s companion, Shakti goddess. They help destroy the demons of darkness and conquer evil every year during Navratri. Tigers and the lives of the people of India have been intertwined for so long that many myths and legends have sprung up around them. There are some popular depictions of the tiger in Indian culture. Durga and her tiger symbolize the powerful union of sacred feminine energy and mother earth, which fearlessly fights against evil.


In Indian culture birds and animals observe weather anomalies – they foretell the changing weather even. They are also messengers between lovers. A Cuckoo sings in spring, and cranes and other birds fly between dark clouds to symbolize rain. The romantic Krishna himself is depicted as a dark cloud that brings rain and prosperity to a dry, thirsty land. The swan is the messenger in the immortal love story of King Nala and the beautiful Princess Damayanti. Parrots carry messages of love between separated lovers. In all the miniature paintings of India, birds and animals are presented as an integral part of the human world. Indians believe that birds and animals are an integral part of the divine. These are central beliefs of all Indian religious and cultural thought and therefore, all species of animals and birds should be respected. It is impossible to imagine a human society without animals and birds. It is impossible to imagine a human society without animals and birds. Since time immemorial they are also in Katha Puranas which means they should be with us even now.

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